Episode 65. Objection! Why Texting Your Tenant Is a Bad Idea

September 27, 2022

If you’re using text messages to run your real estate investing business, then you’re gonna want to tune into this week’s podcast episode about why you shouldn’t be! In this episode, Bonnie puts on her trial lawyer had and gives you a crash course in evidence law (Law & Order Style) so you know what […]

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If you’re using text messages to run your real estate investing business, then you’re gonna want to tune into this week’s podcast episode about why you shouldn’t be! In this episode, Bonnie puts on her trial lawyer had and gives you a crash course in evidence law (Law & Order Style) so you know what you need in your back pocket to win in court. 

In this episode, you’ll hear:

  • How to Enter Tenant Text Messages as Evidence
  • What Hearsay Exceptions Can Be Used to Enter Tenant Text Messages as Evidence
  • 4 Reasons Why Text Messages Aren’t Good Evidence

If you’d like a shoutout (and a chance to win a $20 Home Depot gift card), just leave a review on Apple Podcasts and send a screenshot of it to me on Instagram via DMs

How to Enter Tenant Text Messages as Evidence

Text messages are going to have to overcome 3 evidentiary hurdles in order to be considered in a lawsuit, eviction, or other legal matter. First, you must prove the text is relevant to the matter at hand. Next, you’re going to have to prove its authenticity. Finally, you’ll have to prove that it’s not hearsay.


First step, is relevance: Evidence is relevant if: (a) it has any tendency to make a fact more or less probable than it would be without the evidence; and (b) the fact is of consequence in determining the action.”

I think that it goes without saying that you can’t just enter whatever you want into evidence. The fact that your tenant is a rude nasty man isn’t really relevant to whether the repair happened. The fact that your contractor is best friends with your ex isnt relevant ti weather he finished the work

Keep it on task. The courts don’t have all day!


Next step is authentication. FRE 901(a) requires the party proffering the evidence to demonstrate that the evidence is what it is claimed to be

 To prove a text message’s authenticity you’ll need to answer the following questions:

  • Attach phone numbers to both sender and receiver
  • When was it sent?
  • What is the production method? 

Some courts have ruled that simply having a phone account associated with your name is insufficient to link that number to an individual. Their reasoning is that other people may have access to the phone or a number can be spoofed.

What courts may  look for as extra evidence as to who’s behind a text is evidence like testimony of a witness with knowledge or by distinctive characteristics of the item, including circumstantial evidence such as the author’s screen name or monikers, customary use of emoji or emoticons, the author’s known phone number, the reference to facts that are specific to the author, or reference to facts that only the author and a small number of other individuals may know.


Next comes hearsay. Which is every courtroom drama’s favorite objection. But let me tell you as a trial attorney, sometimes it seems like more things are hearsay than are not!

But hearsay is excluded from evidence for important reasons.

The most important quality of an inept person is to rely upon popular belief and hearsay

 – Marie De Gournay

So what is hearsay?

Hearsay is an out-of-court statement entered to prove the matter asserted. Hearsay is not admissible as evidence unless an exception applies. I explain hearsay exceptions in further detail in the section below. 

Hearsay rules apply applies to documents, emails, text messages, and even spoken words.

What Hearsay Exceptions Can Be Used to Enter Tenant Text Messages as Evidence

There are several exceptions to the hearsay rule. One of the Most common exception used in entering texts is a statement by party opponent (FRE Rule 801).

Statement by Party Opponent

For example, let’s imagine a situation where a tenant is saying you didn’t make repairs and that’s why the tenant didn’t pay rent. Now imagine there is a text or email from the tenant stating “i let him in” in the morning where you’re stating a repair person came. That text would likely be admissible under Rule 801(D).

Truth of the Matter Asserted

Alternatively, you can argue that the text isn’t about the truth of the matter asserted. Instead, it’s to prove something else.

For example, let’s pretend you have a porch in front of your house and a back door off the rear of the house. The steps off the backdoor are rotted out and something you plan to have replaced in the next few weeks. So you tell your tenant before they move in, not to use the back door until the steps are replaced. Now, you know where this story is going. The tenant goes out the back door, steps on the stairs, and falls right through. 

Now let’s pretend you want to get that warning statement to them into evidence. 

(Note: It doesn’t really matter here again if the warning message was made verbally, by text, or by email for this example but obviously some sort of writing is easier to prove than just a verbal statement which often turns into a “he said she said.”)

If we wanted to get this warning in to prove that the back steps were rotted. That wouldn’t work. It would be barred as evidence because it evidentiary intent would be “to prove the matter asserted.” Plus that’s really not at issue here. Everyone agrees the steps were rotted.

However, if you wanted to enter that statement to prove that the tenant had NOTICE of the stairs then you could get it in. Because we aren’t proving the content of the warning message, we are proving the effect it had on the listener which is notice. 

4 Reasons Why Text Messages Aren’t Good Evidence

  1. Authenticity is cumbersome. The apps can be expensive to extract data and even then proving that the sender is the sender and the receiver is the receiver especially in the age of spoofing is tricky
  2. Timestamps aren’t always visible or are unclear ie. on iphones you’ll see yesterday but when exactly was yesterday?
  3. Change phones – data may be lost
  4. Types of communication – ie. what does an emoji mean?

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Episode Transcript

Bonnie Galam 0:00
I am not much of a vetting woman even though I live pretty close to the casino town of Atlantic City, I am more of a restaurant girl and casino floor kind of person. But I am willing to bet that you’ve probably texted your tenants in the past guys. And as a lawyer, let me tell you, I both love and hate text messages. Look, I love text messages when the other side tries to enter damning text messages. And I have a whole arsenal of ways to keep the court from ever seeing them. And for the flip side, I hate text messages when it’s the only thing that my client had to prove our case, because I knew if the other attorney knew a lick about the rules of evidence, we were probably up the creek without a paddle. And so if you’re using text messages to communicate with tenants, or even contractors, other people dealing with your business, maybe like realtors or something, then this is going to be an important wake up call. And hopefully a fun episode full of real and fictitious dramas that I came up with to be able to illustrate the importance and how the rules of evidence play out in, you know, lawsuits that can arise as a real estate investor. And so this week’s episode is like a little law school lesson about evidence. And let me tell you, I loved evidence glass, when I was in law school, and later, as a trial attorney, I just loved being in court. And let me tell you, it is just as satisfying as you might think, to like object to things. But on the flip side, it can totally put you into a cold sweat when someone objects to you and what you’re trying to do in the courtroom. And you may or may not know this, but I was a trial attorney for several years before I switched over to Real Estate full time. And I absolutely know that putting in the years of work in the courtroom has made me a better transactional attorney, a better asset protection attorney because I can see. And I have seen how things really shake out in a courtroom. But one of my favorite things about being a trial attorney was like the puzzle of putting together a case. Like, how do you actually prove a case in court because it’s simply not enough to have evidence in your file, but you actually have to be able to admit it into court. And creating an admission plan was like my jam, guys. Once I was prepping for this really big, you know, first degree kidnapping trial, and I had this huge access cell file that I had created with like every single piece of evidence listed out, and then what rule of evidence I was going to use to have it admitted. And then any supporting case law and why it was relevant. It was like a type a heaven. And I just loved putting the pieces together of seeing what I had in, you know, the evidence drawer in the police department, what I had in my file, and what I knew the witnesses were going to say, and how that would actually translate into the courtroom. But one of the things I always remembered was that one of the trickiest things to enter was always, always, always text messages.

Bonnie Galam 3:18
And that’s why now as a real estate investor, I tried to avoid it like the plague. And I’ve talked about this before, but investing in a property management system with not just rent collection abilities, but also like a communication portal has been like a huge weight lifted off my shoulder. And let me tell you, I personally sleep better at night, knowing that all of my tenant communication at least is like one click Download away. And in a format that like I feel I can very easily authenticate in court. And we’re gonna talk a little bit more about authentication and a few more minutes. And if you follow me on Instagram, you know, I’ve talked about this a few times that we personally use AppFolio as our property management software. But I know a number of other you know, pm programs have this feature as well. But if you like courtroom dramas and objections, and all that good stuff. And this is going to be a really fun episode and like a little crash course into the rules of trial, the rules of evidence, and we’re going to cover how to enter it really anything into evidence. But we’re gonna talk a little bit about the pitfalls of text messages specifically, and why text messages are like my least favorite form of writing. And, of course, some fun like hypotheticals using both real and imaginary horror stories involving entering text messages into evidence that way we can take something that feels very abstract and put it into practice. There are state rules of evidence and there’s federal rules of evidence. Most states have some sort of modified version of the Federal Rules of Evidence, but for today’s purposes, I’m going to be referring to the Federal Rules of Evidence, just because that is at least one consistency across the nation. And since we’re just talking really about high level principles of ABA And it’ll get the point across in a way that really is applicable in most states. And a few times throughout the episode, I will kind of give a little bit of a distinction like some States choose to follow this rule, and some states choose to follow another one. But at the end of the day, y’all know, my favorite thing is that I love, love, love, love, love, love, writings, putting things in writing and insurance are hands down my top to ride or die. So protection tools, insurance is on the defense because insurance doesn’t stop legal problems, but it can sometimes pay the bills for them. And that is priceless in my opinion. And I also love writings and contracts because it does double duty on both the offensive side and defensive side. Writings can nip problems in the bud before they even explode into lawsuits, they can deter people who would be problematic or trying to you know, squeeze or pull a fast one down the line like tenants or partners or contractors, and we just want to deter them from even working with you in the first place. And on the flip side on the offense or defensive side rather, are the fact that writings contracts can be the evidence you enter into court to prove your case when things go wrong. But the writings are no good on the defensive side if you can’t get them entered into evidence. And so that’s what we’re going to really be talking about today. But if you want to get your offensive AP, your offensive asset protection on lock with some easy DIY, fill in the blank contracts and communications, then I have a brand spankin new resource for you. My template shop is back baby. And for the week of launch the whole store, every single template in there is 50% off. Yes 50% off. If you want to automate your communications with 26 Lawyer drafted email templates, I got a bundle for that. Want to get a cash for agreement in your back pocket for your next tenant occupied acquisition? Yep, I got you have a tenant who’s fallen behind, let’s lock them up and skip the eviction process with a payment plan in less than 15 minutes. Also, if your Google Drive is something of shame, then you can steal my file organization templates. The template shop is your one stop shop for legal documents, self management resources, and you can shop the sale for this week until October 1 at Bonnie galam.com. Forward slash sharp. Now, let’s dive in to my love hate but mostly hate relationship with text messages.

Bonnie Galam 7:41
Now let’s start off with getting text messages actually entered into evidence. And this might seem obvious, but the first thing you have to do is actually be able to access the text messages. And this could be in a form of a screenshot, which is not great, because any half decent lawyer will challenge that format and probably win. But you could also use downloading apps to get the data off of your phone and I’ll link an iPhone and an Android version of these apps in the show notes for you to check out. Some of them are a little bit expensive, I’m not gonna lie. But it’s definitely a faster version than like trying to subpoena a cell phone company to get these records from them. And after we actually have the text messages in hand come the actual rules of evidence and text messages are going to have to overcome three different evidentiary hurdles. The first thing is that you’re gonna have to prove that the texts are relevant to the matter at hand. Next, you’re gonna have to prove the its authenticity. And then finally, you’re gonna have to prove that it’s not hearsay. And so let’s start with relevance first. And so the rules of evidence state, that evidence is relevant, if it a has any tendency to make a fact more or less probable than it would be without the evidence and be the fact of is of consequence in determining the action. And so we can’t be just submitting like random things into evidence. I think that goes without saying, but you know, think of, you know, examples, like the fact that like your tenant is a rude, nasty man isn’t really relevant to whether a repair happened, for example, or the fact that your contractor is best friends with your ex husband isn’t really rather than whether he has finished the work or you have paid him. And so we’ve got to keep it on task. And this is largely just like a matter of court efficiency, like the court just doesn’t have all day to like flesh out and like hear backstory that doesn’t really matter to the actual issues at hand and like the points that you have to be able to prove to win your case. And so let’s assume that whatever text message, whatever rail evidence we have is relevant. It’s past that initial hurdle. The next step is authentication. And with authentication with text messages that looks a lot like being able to prove who sent it, but also In a sense of proof of receipt, because I’m sure we’ve all experienced it, where someone says they sent you a text message. And perhaps you can even see a screenshot on their phone that they sent it to you, but it’s not on your phone. And so being able to prove that it was sent and received can be a bit tricky. Now, federal rule of evidence 901. A requires the party proffering meaning entering the evidence to demonstrate that the evidence is what it claims to be. So this is your responsibility when you’re entering evidence to prove its authenticity. And so, when we’re thinking about text messages, we’re gonna have to like be able to attach the phone numbers involved to both the sender and the receiver of the text messages. Now, some courts have actually ruled that simply having a phone account associated with your name is insufficient to link that number to an individual, for example, someone’s parent could be the holder of the account. Or the basis could also be that other people simply have access to phones. Especially if they’re not password locked, anyone in theory could have sent or been the one to view a particular message. And also, right now you can be spoofed, I’ve seen this defense come up frequently. Where spoofing has been used to make it look like someone is texting you when they’re actually not. And that’s really, really risky. In courtrooms if someone you know, raises the allegation that these text messages are false, and they’re actually spoofed because then we’re going to need to go back and like subpoena the cellphone records from the companies to prove that SEC text messages were actually being sent at that time to the cellphone companies will not be able to send you like the content of messages, that’s all data that’s stored like on the phone itself. But you will be able to least get, for example, the start time of a phone call and the time of the phone call or the time a text message was sent. And so being able to rebut an allegation of spoofing can be also one expensive and a long time and not always courts will be able to extend that time to you. So you have to come to court prepared for that defense. And so if you’re in one of those states, that is looking for extra evidence as to like who’s behind the text message beyond just like the account holder.

Bonnie Galam 12:19
Some of that evidence might entail are things like testimony from a witness saying that they have knowledge of you know, the person receiving that text message, or by like, distinctive characteristics of the text message itself, like circumstantial evidence that the, the person’s pictures there, or different types of like words that only they would use, or only you know, they’re talking about knowledge that only that sender or that receiver would know about? If they use emojis or you know emoticons as the court likes to use, it was funny when I was doing some research for this post, getting, you know, everything organized, all of like the language that, you know, lawyers use when talking about text messages, is like if your great grandparents were talking about text messages, it’s like used alongside like facsimile instead of like fax, which God, I don’t even know why we’re still faxing anything. But that’s, that’s a whole other podcast. But even things like is this the author’s known phone number? And are they referencing to facts that are specific to the offer, or, as I mentioned before, like specific to like facts that only the author or a very small amount of people would have known about? And so that’s how we’re like proving who’s actually sending and who know props is responding to these text messages. Also, we need to have proof of like, when was it sent? And this can be tricky with screenshots? Because it doesn’t always say exactly when every single message was sent. Especially I mean, I’m an iPhone user, and I can tell you, it doesn’t. And also like, what is the production method? Like, how did we get the items on your phone off your phone? Are we just taking screenshots and printing them, which, you know, if anyone has any ability on like, Photoshop, like those can be very easily altered, versus something where it’s used through like an extraction method that is not able to be modified in some sort of a way, or even like the next level of that, again, are we subpoenaing official business records from the cellphone providers to be able to show like the actual timestamps that these messages are being sent? And so once we have been able to kind of authenticate these text messages after we’ve proved their relevance to the matter, the next thing on that comes hearsay, which is every courtroom dramas favorite objection, I know, but let me tell you as a trial attorney, it’s sometimes feels like more things are hearsay, that are not because hearsay is basically any out of court statement entered for the truth of the matter asserted and I’ll go back over that because I said that really quick but hearsay is excluded from From evidence for really, really important reasons. And I saw this quote by the 16th century French feminist writer, Marie de Gournay, who stated the most important quality of an inept person is to rely upon popular belief and hearsay. And so we don’t want to be relying on hearsay and judges don’t want to be considered inept. Absolutely not. We do not want to be bruising any lawyers ego, and they definitely do not want to be overturned on appeal, guys, appeals may be something that’s, you know, sounds very casually thrown around, but it can actually affect like a judges ability to get tenure or to be able to remain being a judge if they you know, keep getting all their decisions overturned by a higher court. And so what exactly is hearsay? As I stated just a second ago, hearsay is an out of court statement entered to prove the matter asserted, if there’s any fellow lawyers here, I apologize if that was a triggering statement for you to hear, because you’re probably getting some law school anxiety, just thinking about how many times that was drilled into our brains during evidence class, which is a standard class, no matter if you become a trial attorney or not like evidence is a course that the American Bar Association requires us all to take. It’s a standard course, we all have to either suffer through or thrive through, I really enjoyed evidence. But I know for some of my transactional driven friends in law school, it was painful. But I think it’s really, really important. And hearsay applies not just to text messages, but applies to, you know, conversations and emails and letters, and even contracts. And spoken words, of course, however, there’s a bunch, there’s many exceptions to the hearsay rule, I wouldn’t say there’s 100 of them. But there’s maybe like, between a dozen and two dozen exceptions to the hearsay rule. And one of the most common exceptions that are used when trying to enter text messages into evidence is the exception for statements made by a party opponent, which is under Rule 801. And so the let’s imagine this situation where we’ve got a tenant who’s saying, like, perhaps you, the landlord didn’t make repairs, and that’s why the tenant didn’t pay rent. And now imagine that there’s a text or an email from that tenant stating, quote, I let him in, in the morning when you’re stating a repair person came, and maybe you have an invoice, showing that that was the date that the repair person came. And so that text would likely be admissible under 801. D, if you the landlord, were to try to enter it as evidence is like, Hey, this guy, even you know, the tenant even let the person in, and I’ve got the text message to prove it.

Bonnie Galam 17:34
Or you can argue that the text is not about the truth of the matter asserted, which is that other part of what qualifies something to be hearsay. Instead, you will be saying, I’m not here to prove the tech says what it says I’m here to prove something else. So for example, let’s just pretend that we have a porch in the front of your house or something like that. And there’s a backdoor off the rear. And let’s let’s just pretend that you know the steps off the back door or run out or something like that. And so you have this plan to replace them in the next few weeks, the next few days, whatever the case may be. And so you tell your tenant, before they move in, hey, just don’t use the back door until the steps are replaced. And I know exactly where the story is gonna go. The tenant goes out the back door steps on the stairs falls right through because the rod out and is now suing you for their injuries. And so let’s pretend you want to get that warning statement that you gave them into evidence, because that’s really important. That’s a really important defense that you have. And so it doesn’t really matter again, here whether that warning message was given to them verbally, by text by email. But for this example, you know, some sort of writing is always going to be easier to prove than just like a verbal statement, which just it always turns into a he said, she said, You say I say this, they said no, you did it. So anyway, so we want to get this warning into evidence. And this morning, what we were saying is that it’s to prove not that the back steps were rotted, which is an important distinction.

<b.Bonnie Galam 19:03
You told them that the back steps are right, but that’s not what we’re trying to prove here. In fact, it’s undisputed in this lawsuit situation that the back steps were brought in, were pretty, you know, deciding that issue. And so we’re not, you know, we’re not trying to enter the statement to prove the matter asserted here. For a number of reasons, because we’ve we’ve already pre negotiated this out in trial. But if you wanted to enter this warning statement to prove that the tenant had notice of the stairs and the condition of the stairs, then you would likely be able to get that in because we’re not proving the content of the warning message. We’re proving the effect that it had on the listener, which is the notice that it gave the tenant not to go to that particular area of the house. Now let’s talk about some like specific downsides of using text messages in general because, as you know, notice a lot of the stuff is just communications generally whether it’s an email or a conversation or a text message. And so the first downside of using a text message is just frankly, authenticity is cumbersome as we talked about, the apps can be expensive to extract data. And then even then proving that the sender is the sender. And the receiver is the receiver, especially in the age of spoofing can be really tricky. And especially when we’re talking about perhaps a small claims trial or an eviction trial, these are summary matters. They’re not something that you’ve got months and months and months to prepare for and send subpoenas out for it’s something you’re basically whatever you’ve got in your back pocket is probably what you’re showing up to court with in like the next month. And subpoenas do not get turned around that quickly. And when you know, it’s an allegation of like, habitability or something with an eviction, we’re not extending this out over months and months and months, it’s not in your favor, it’s not in the tenants favor, no matter who the bad guy is in the situation. And so that’s why I really love you know, property management systems where like, all the communications can be like downloaded with a click, it’s something where you know, we have their social security number, there’s an account with this, they signed the lease, like, there is no doubt that the person communicating with us is the tenant in that property. And it’s again, downloadable with timestamps, proof of opening receipts, with a matter of a click, and so that I love, love, love. And I think you’ll be able to see like the difference between that and like showing up with screenshots. Which brings me to the downside number two, which is timestamps, timestamps are not always visible, particularly when they’re taking screenshots of text messages. And even like with iPhones, like if I was to take a screenshot right now of a text message conversation, it would say something like yesterday, not the date. And so when exactly is yesterday, because the date you’re screenshotting this and printing it out, you know, turning it over, and discovery is not the date it’s showing up in court. And so it’s really hard for us to like talk about when notices were actually given when we just have the word yesterday, and when not every single message has a date and timestamp next to it. And so that is Risk Number two, we’ve got authenticity is cumbersome. Now we got timestamps are not a given. That way, they’re not a given. The third problem is, if you change your phones, particularly if you’re going from iPhone to Android, or Android to iPhone, like something where like the data is not just transferring over, it may actually get lost. And you don’t know obviously, when a loss is going to happen. But you also like probably want to live your life and like use whatever phone you want. But this data can get lost. Yes, like I said, you can subpoena cellphone companies for like records, but that’s only going to give you timestamps of like a text message was sent at x y&z time, or a phone call started at x time and ended at x time. And so that data can and often does get lost when phones get lost when you’re switching providers when you’re switching from like one type of phone to another. It’s frustrating that stuff’s in the cloud, and it’s not there forever. And then finally, number four, the types of communication that happened by text message are not the most clear. Like say you send a text message to someone and they respond with a thumbs up or with an emoji like that’s not how someone in all likelihood is responding to you. In text in like an email, for example, definitely not how they’re talking with you in a contract, a contract would not be made out with emojis. And so you could think about the situation perhaps tenants are not the best example. I mean, they definitely can be I can think of a million different reasons why you don’t want text messages with emojis from your tenants. But I’m also thinking about like contractors here, where you may be texting back and forth about a price. And then when you agree upon one, you give that number a thumbs up and they just roll with it. Is that an accepted contract? I’m not kidding, guys. I cannot tell you how often I’ve seen text messages be entered in as proof of a contract, when you’re like, Oh, heck no, that’s not how I would want to be. And so the communication style that we get through text messages does not paint a clear picture of what is actually happening. I’d say 9.5 times out of 10. And when you show that to a judge, like how do you explain what an emoji means? How do you explain what like that little heart icon next to an image actually means like, that is really tricky. And when you have this gray area where like it can be interpreted a number of different ways like that evidence is not going to carry much if any way like a judge does not know what to do with that. And so you’re probably starting to get my vibe as to like why I just don’t like text why rail against them pretty often. And so what are some alternatives? What are like better practices? Obviously, email is a really good and free alternative that is available for you if you’re not using like a property management software. But Property Management software’s I feel like are definitely the easiest. But again, they’re limited to tenants, you’re not probably contacting your contractors through there, you’re not dealing with your partners through there. So there’s definitely not dealing with your Realtors through there. And so there’s a lot of people who that just it can’t capture and so I love emails following up with you know, phone calls with just like a confirmation email and I get into this habit all the time just as a lawyer where like anytime you discuss something on the phone, you follow up with an email just kind of confirming it. Same thing you meet with a tenant in person like follow up with an email after you talk with a contractor follow up with an email contractors guys, there’s a million contracts you should actually be using with them, you know, change order scopes of work, things like that, like I don’t think email is a much better way of communicating things with contractors other than like, Hey, we’re gonna be at the building at this time. Like I said, like phone call, follow up with an email, visit a tenant, talk with them, follow up with an email. And this week, my 26 self management email collection is 50% off along with the rest of the templates in my shop. And so if you want to like get all of these types of responses, load them into your Gmail, send them with like one click and just like plug their name in. You can grab that for 50% off this week, along with the rest of my templates at Bonnie galam.com. Forward slash shop sale will be ending this Saturday guys October 1. So move quickly on this grand opening door buster sale. And thank you again guys for always tuning in to the House of Horrors podcast. It was a lot of fun for me to show up each and every week, and teach you guys all about the nitty gritty legal stuff. And if you think this episode would help another investor, please share it on social media, post it in a Facebook investing group. And make sure you’re subscribe so you don’t miss out on any future episodes. Next week on deck we have a horror story involving residential assisted living.

Bonnie Galam 26:49
Honestly, it was a super fun conversation, one of my favorite guest interviews I’ve had in a long time, you’re not gonna want to miss it. I think all of us have probably thought a little bit about residential assisted living, or other forms of senior housing, nursing homes, things like that. And we’re going to talk about the good, the bad and the Ugly, lots of ugly when it comes to this form this asset class. And so I don’t want to miss out on this episode. It was a lot a lot of fun. And so that’s it for this week’s episode. I’ll see you here same time, same place next week.



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  1. […] putting every property into its own LLC has a practical limit. The same goes with communication. You know at this point (see episode 65) that I dislike texts, that doesn’t mean you have to communicate only by certified mail either. Finding that sweet spot […]

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I'll help you increase your bottom line, so you can have more money to invest.... or just do whatever you want

I'm a self-managing landlord, generational wealth evangelist, self-education obsessed course creator, automation avenger, book worm, Sixers fan, semi-retired real estate attorney and momma to two tiny hummusapiens. 

I believe that time is the most valuable currency, but money is a close second. I fight against the bad rap landlords get while still pushing the industry to improve. 

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Good Bones
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Helping you scale & streamline your rentals every week with:
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This is not a law firm. Nothing on this site should be construed as legal advice. Bonnie does not provide you or your company legal advice. We simply provide legal information and education for you to customize and use on your own and have reviewed by your own local attorney. Bonnie is an attorney licensed in NJ and PA, but is not practicing law or establishing an attorney-client relationship with you, ever through Bonnie Galam LLC. Some states may consider this attorney advertising (although it isn't intended to be). Thank you!

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